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Need to get a legal issues research proposal master's us letter size british


How to get published in an academic journal top tips from editors nbsp

How to negotiate the many hurdles that stand between a draft paper and publication.Photograph: Clint Hughes/PA Writing for academic journals is highly competitive.

Even if you overcome the first hurdle and generate a valuable idea or piece of research - how do you then sum it up in a way that will capture the interest of reviewers? There’s no simple formula for getting published - editors’ expectations can vary both between and within subject areas 28 Nov 2013 - Selectors will have skimmed through your CV already, and they   If there's a research proposal, why agonise over a lengthy   Bad:  I work on the lived experiences of LGB people in contemporary Britain [why?]   But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it   most viewed in US  .Even if you overcome the first hurdle and generate a valuable idea or piece of research - how do you then sum it up in a way that will capture the interest of reviewers? There’s no simple formula for getting published - editors’ expectations can vary both between and within subject areas.

But there are some challenges that will confront all academic writers regardless of their discipline.How should you respond to reviewer feedback? Is there a correct way to structure a paper? And should you always bother revising and resubmitting? We asked journal editors from a range of backgrounds for their tips on getting published Academic cover letters 10 top tips Higher Education Network The nbsp.How should you respond to reviewer feedback? Is there a correct way to structure a paper? And should you always bother revising and resubmitting? We asked journal editors from a range of backgrounds for their tips on getting published.The writing stage 1) Focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than chronologically Take some time before even writing your paper to think about the logic of the presentation.When writing, focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than the chronological order of the experiments that you did deportesandorra.com/research-proposal/best-website-to-buy-a-custom-human-resources-management-hrm-research-proposal-business-platinum-61-pages-16775-words.

When writing, focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than the chronological order of the experiments that you did.

Deborah Sweet, editor of Cell Stem Cell and publishing director at Cell Press 2) Don’t try to write and edit at the same time Open a file on the PC and put in all your headings and sub-headings and then fill in under any of the headings where you have the ideas to do so best website to buy a custom human resources management (hrm) research proposal Business Platinum 61 pages / 16775 words.Deborah Sweet, editor of Cell Stem Cell and publishing director at Cell Press 2) Don’t try to write and edit at the same time Open a file on the PC and put in all your headings and sub-headings and then fill in under any of the headings where you have the ideas to do so.If you reach your daily target (mine is 500 words) put any other ideas down as bullet points and stop writing; then use those bullet points to make a start the next day.If you are writing and can’t think of the right word (eg for elephant) don’t worry - write (big animal long nose) and move on - come back later and get the correct term.Write don’t edit; otherwise you lose flow.

Roger Watson, editor-in-chief, Journal of Advanced Nursing 3) Don’t bury your argument like a needle in a haystack If someone asked you on the bus to quickly explain your paper, could you do so in clear, everyday language? This clear argument should appear in your abstract and in the very first paragraph (even the first line) of your paper.

Don’t make us hunt for your argument as for a needle in a haystack.If it is hidden on page seven that will just make us annoyed.Oh, and make sure your argument runs all the way through the different sections of the paper and ties together the theory and empirical material.Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies 4) Ask a colleague to check your work One of the problems that journal editors face is badly written papers.It might be that the writer’s first language isn’t English and they haven’t gone the extra mile to get it proofread.

It can be very hard to work out what is going on in an article if the language and syntax are poor.Brian Lucey, editor, International Review of Financial Analysis 5) Get published by writing a review or a response Writing reviews is a good way to get published - especially for people who are in the early stages of their career.It’s a chance to practice at writing a piece for publication, and get a free copy of a book that you want.We publish more reviews than papers so we’re constantly looking for reviewers.Some journals, including ours, publish replies to papers that have been published in the same journal.

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Editors quite like to publish replies to previous papers because it stimulates discussion.Yujin Nagasawa, c , philosophy of religion editor of Philosophy Compass 6) Don’t forget about international readers We get people who write from America who assume everyone knows the American system - and the same happens with UK writers.Because we’re an international journal, we need writers to include that international context Chapter 4: Submission to Print: Submitting a Paper for Publication and the   Finally, our thanks must be extended to the faculties of Arts and Humanities, Law,   master's coursework, and he has taught English academic writing at the   educational studies that have researched various aspects of scholarly writing, from..Because we’re an international journal, we need writers to include that international context.

Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal 7) Don’t try to cram your PhD into a 6,000 word paper Sometimes people want to throw everything in at once and hit too many objectives.We get people who try to tell us their whole PhD in 6,000 words and it just doesn’t work 1 Jun 2002 - The original annotated bibliographies have been abridged in some cases to   Proposal for a Thesis in the Field of. English and American   for the Master of Liberal Arts Degree   Note: The statement of the research problem is concise.   numbers than ever before—in factories, in education, in letters, and..

We get people who try to tell us their whole PhD in 6,000 words and it just doesn’t work.

More experienced writers will write two or three papers from one project, using a specific aspect of their research as a hook 1 Jun 2002 - The original annotated bibliographies have been abridged in some cases to   Proposal for a Thesis in the Field of. English and American   for the Master of Liberal Arts Degree   Note: The statement of the research problem is concise.   numbers than ever before—in factories, in education, in letters, and..More experienced writers will write two or three papers from one project, using a specific aspect of their research as a hook.Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal Submitting your work 8) Pick the right journal: it’s a bad sign if you don’t recognise any of the editorial board Check that your article is within the scope of the journal that you are submitting to.This seems so obvious but it’s surprising how many articles are submitted to journals that are completely inappropriate.It is a bad sign if you do not recognise the names of any members of the editorial board.Ideally look through a number of recent issues to ensure that it is publishing articles on the same topic and that are of similar quality and impact.

Ian Russell, editorial director for science at Oxford University Press 9) Always follow the correct submissions procedures Often authors don’t spend the 10 minutes it takes to read the instructions to authors which wastes enormous quantities of time for both the author and the editor and stretches the process when it does not need to Tangali Sudarshan, editor, Surface Engineering 10) Don’t repeat your abstract in the cover letter We look to the cover letter for an indication from you about what you think is most interesting and significant about the paper, and why you think it is a good fit for the journal.There is no need to repeat the abstract or go through the content of the paper in detail – we will read the paper itself to find out what it says.The cover letter is a place for a bigger picture outline, plus any other information that you would like us to have.Deborah Sweet, editor of Cell Stem Cell and publishing director at Cell Press 11) A common reason for rejections is lack of context Make sure that it is clear where your research sits within the wider scholarly landscape, and which gaps in knowledge it’s addressing.A common reason for articles being rejected after peer review is this lack of context or lack of clarity about why the research is important.

Jane Winters, executive editor of the Institute of Historical Research’s journal, Historical Research and associate editor of Frontiers in Digital Humanities: Digital History 12) Don’t over-state your methodology Ethnography seems to be the trendy method of the moment, so lots of articles submitted claim to be based on it.However, closer inspection reveals quite limited and standard interview data.A couple of interviews in a caf do not constitute ethnography.Be clear - early on - about the nature and scope of your data collection.If a theoretical insight is useful to your analysis, use it consistently throughout your argument and text.Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies Dealing with feedback 13) Respond directly (and calmly) to reviewer comments When resubmitting a paper following revisions, include a detailed document summarising all the changes suggested by the reviewers, and how you have changed your manuscript in light of them.Don’t respond to reviewer feedback as soon as you get it.

Read it, think about it for several days, discuss it with others, and then draft a response.

Helen Ball, editorial board, Journal of Human Lactation 14) Revise and resubmit: don’t give up after getting through all the major hurdles You’d be surprised how many authors who receive the standard “revise and resubmit” letter never actually do so.But it is worth doing - some authors who get asked to do major revisions persevere and end up getting their work published, yet others, who had far less to do, never resubmit Where to find a college writing help research proposal legal issues Senior American 144 pages / 39600 words ASA.But it is worth doing - some authors who get asked to do major revisions persevere and end up getting their work published, yet others, who had far less to do, never resubmit.

It seems silly to get through the major hurdles of writing the article, getting it past the editors and back from peer review only to then give up.Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies 15) It is acceptable to challenge reviewers, with good justification It is acceptable to decline a reviewer’s suggestion to change a component of your article if you have a good justification, or can (politely) argue why the reviewer is wrong Annotated Sample Research Proposal: Process and Product. Contents   While I actually did my original map with paper and pencil, the advantage of using a dedicated   What methodological issues needed to be addressed by this research? 10.   cognition which can help us understand why students have the difficulties..Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies 15) It is acceptable to challenge reviewers, with good justification It is acceptable to decline a reviewer’s suggestion to change a component of your article if you have a good justification, or can (politely) argue why the reviewer is wrong.A rational explanation will be accepted by editors, especially if it is clear you have considered all the feedback received and accepted some of it.

Helen Ball, editorial board of Journal of Human Lactation 16) Think about how quickly you want to see your paper published Some journals rank more highly than others and so your risk of rejection is going to be greater.People need to think about whether or not they need to see their work published quickly - because certain journals will take longer.Some journals, like ours, also do advance access so once the article is accepted it appears on the journal website.This is important if you’re preparing for a job interview and need to show that you are publishable.Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal 17) Remember: when you read published papers you only see the finished article Publishing in top journals is a challenge for everyone, but it may seem easier for other people.

When you read published papers you see the finished article, not the first draft, nor the first revise and resubmit, nor any of the intermediate versions – and you never see the failures.Philip Powell, managing editor of the Information Systems Journal Enter the Guardian university awards 2015 and join the higher education network for more comment, analysis and job opportunities, direct to your inbox.Topics How can you make your academic covering letter stand out? Photograph: Martin Godwin The classic counterpart to a CV, cover letters are standard in almost all job applications.

Academic cover letters are typically allowed to be longer than in other sectors, but this latitude comes with its own pitfalls.

For one, many cover letters are written as if they were simply a retelling in full sentences of everything on the CV.Selectors will have skimmed through your CV already, and they don't want to re-read it in prose form.Instead, approach your cover letter as a short essay.It needs to present a coherent, evidence-based response to one question above all: why would you be an excellent hire for this position? 1) Start with a clear identity Consider this sentence: "My research interests include Thomas Mann, German modernist literature, the body, the senses, Freudian psychoanalysis, queer theory and performativity, poststructuralism, and Derridean deconstruction.

" In my experience, this type of sentence is all too common.Who is this person? What do they really do? If I'm asking myself these questions after more than a few lines of your cover letter, then you've already fallen into the trap of being beige and forgettable.To get shortlisted, you need to stand out.

Your opening paragraph should answer the following questions: What is your current job and affiliation? What's your research field, and what's your main contribution to it? What makes you most suitable for this post? 2) Evidence, evidence, evidence It's generally accepted that, in job applications, we need to 'sell' ourselves, but how to do this can be a source of real anxiety.

Where's the line between assertiveness, modesty and arrogance? The best way to guard against self-aggrandisement or self-abnegation is to focus on evidence.For example, "I am internationally recognised as an expert in my field" is arrogant, because you are making a bold claim and asking me to trust your account of yourself The only way that other women could possibly have got to that seat, is the same way that   Research undertaken in the USA in the 1970s (Rindfleisch, 2000: 172) revealed   In the first, she concluded that several issues emerge from the   academics in the UK to question the complexity of processes of female misogyny..For example, "I am internationally recognised as an expert in my field" is arrogant, because you are making a bold claim and asking me to trust your account of yourself.

By contrast, "I was invited to deliver a keynote talk at top international conference " is tangible and verifiable.If you can produce facts and figures to strengthen your evidence, then your letter will have even more impact, for example "I created three protocols which improved reliability by N%.These protocols are now embedded in my group's experiments and are also being used by ABC".

Remember that your readers need you to be distinctive and memorable.Never cite the job description back at the selectors.If they have asked for excellent communication skills, you're going to need to do better than merely including the sentence "I have excellent communication skills." What is your evidence for this claim? 3) It's not an encyclopaedia Because everything you say must be supported with evidence, you can't include everything.I find that many people are prone to an encyclopaedic fervour in their cover letters: they slavishly address each line of the job description, mention every single side project which they have on the go, every book chapter and review article they've ever written, and so on.

Letters like this just end up being plaintive, excessively tedious, and ineffective.Instead, show that you can distinguish your key achievements (eg.top publications, grants won, invited talks) from the purely nice-to-have stuff (eg.seminar series organised, review articles, edited collections).Put your highlights and best evidence in the letter – leave the rest to the CV.

4) Think holistically There's no need to try to make each application document do all the work for you.If there's a research proposal, why agonise over a lengthy paraphrase of the proposal in the cover letter? If there's a teaching statement, why write three more teaching paragraphs in your letter as well? Give me a quick snapshot and signpost where the rest of the information can be found, for example: "My next project will achieve X by doing Y.Further details, including funding and publication plans related to the project, are included in my research proposal.

" 5) Two sides are more than enough There is no reason why your cover letter should need to go beyond two sides.In fact, I've seen plenty of people get shortlisted for fellowships and lectureships using a cover letter that fitted on to a single side of A4.It can be done – without shrinking the font and reducing the margins, neither of which, I'm sorry to break it to you, is an acceptable ruse.

Besides, please have some sympathy for your readers: they have jobs to do and lives to lead; they will appreciate pith.6) Writing about your research: why, not what In almost every conceivable kind of academic application, fellowships included, it's very high risk to write about your research in such a way that it can only be understood by an expert in your field.

It's far safer to pitch your letter so that it's comprehensible to a broader readership Our research generates discoveries, many of which have profound social,   for a PhD programme, you may need to submit a research proposal with your application.   to conduct research; look professional – it should be typed, in good English,   proposal, identifying the subject for research in terms of theoretical issues  .It's far safer to pitch your letter so that it's comprehensible to a broader readership.

You need to show a draft of your letter to at least one person who, as a minimum requirement, is outside your immediate group or department.Do they understand your research? Crucially, do they understand its significance? Before the selectors can care about the details of what you do, you have to hook their interest with why you do it 9 Feb 2017 - Research proposals are also used to assess your expertise in the area in which you want to conduct research, you knowledge of the existing  .Do they understand your research? Crucially, do they understand its significance? Before the selectors can care about the details of what you do, you have to hook their interest with why you do it.Bad: "I work on the lived experiences of LGB people in contemporary Britain why?9 Feb 2017 - Research proposals are also used to assess your expertise in the area in which you want to conduct research, you knowledge of the existing  .Bad: "I work on the lived experiences of LGB people in contemporary Britain why? .I look particularly at secondary school children why? , and I use mixed methods to describe their experiences of homophobic bullying vague .

My PhD is the first full-length study of this topic so what?deportesandorra.com/presentation/nuclear-weapons.php.My PhD is the first full-length study of this topic so what? ." Better: "In recent years, significant progress has been made towards equality for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people living in Britain.However, young people aged 11-19 who self-identify as LGB are more likely to experience verbal and physical bullying, and they are at significantly greater risk of self-harm and suicide.In my dissertation, I conduct an ethnographic study of a large metropolitan secondary school, in order to identify the factors which lead to homophobic bullying, as well as policies and initiatives which LGB young people find effective in dealing with it." 7) Mind the gap Be aware that "nobody has studied this topic before" is a very weak justification for a project.

Nature may abhor a vacuum, but academia does not.Does it even matter that no previous scholarship exists on this precise topic? Perhaps it never merited all that money and time.What are we unable to do because of this gap? What have we been getting wrong until now? What will we be able to do differently once your project has filled this void? 8) Writing about teaching: avoid list-making Avoid the temptation of list-making here, too.You don't need to itemise each course you have taught, because I've already read this on your CV, and there's no need to detail every module you would teach at the new department.

Similarly, you don't need to quote extensively from student feedback in order to show that you're a great teacher; this smacks of desperation.

A few examples of relevant teaching and the names of some courses you would be prepared to teach will suffice.You should also give me an insight into your philosophy of teaching.What do students get out of your courses? What strategies do you use in your teaching, and why are they effective? 9) Be specific about the department When explaining why you want to join the department, look out for well-intentioned but empty statements which could apply to pretty much any higher education institution in the world.For example, "I would be delighted to join the department of X, with its world-leading research and teaching, and I see this as the perfect place to develop my career.Deploy your research skills, use the internet judiciously, and identify some specifics.

Are there initiatives in the department to which you could contribute, e.research clusters, seminar series, outreach events? What about potential collaborators (remembering to say what's in it for them)? What about interdisciplinary links to other departments in the institution? 10) Be yourself It often feels like slim pickings when you're job hunting, and many people feel compelled to apply for pretty much any role which comes up in their area, even if it's not a great fit.But you still need to make the most of who you are, rather than refashioning yourself into an approximation of what you think the selectors want 3 Jan 2015 - Journal editors share their advice on how to structure a paper, write a cover letter - and deal with awkward feedback from reviewers.   Some journals, including ours, publish replies to papers that have been published in the same journal.   the American system - and the same happens with UK writers..

But you still need to make the most of who you are, rather than refashioning yourself into an approximation of what you think the selectors want.

If you have a strong track record in quantitative research and you've spotted a job in a department leaning more towards qualitative methods, you might still decide to apply, but there's no point in trying to sell yourself as what you're not.They'll see through it, and you'll have downplayed your genuine successes for no reason.Instead, make a case for why your achievements should be of interest to the department, for example by demonstrating how statistics would complement their qualitative work Writing for Scholarly Journals University of Glasgow.Instead, make a case for why your achievements should be of interest to the department, for example by demonstrating how statistics would complement their qualitative work.At the end of the day, the best way to get shortlisted is to highlight bona fide achievements that are distinctive to you .At the end of the day, the best way to get shortlisted is to highlight bona fide achievements that are distinctive to you.Writing a Good PhD Research Proposal What is a PhD proposal? A PhD proposal is a an outline of your proposed project that is designed to: Define a clear question and approach to answering it Highlight its originality and/or significance Explain how it adds to, develops (or challenges) existing literature in the field Persuade potential supervisors and/or funders of the importance of the work, and why you are the right person to undertake it Research proposals may vary in length, so it is important to check with the department(s) to which you are applying to check word limits and guidelines.

Generally speaking, a proposal should be around 3,000 words which you write as part of the application process.What is the research proposal for? Potential supervisors, admissions tutors and/or funders use research proposals to assess the quality and originality of your ideas, your skills in critical thinking and the feasibility of the research project.Please bear in mind that PhD programmes in the UK are designed to be completed in three years (full time) or six years (part time).Think very carefully about the scope of your research and be prepared to explain how you will complete it within this timeframe.Research proposals are also used to assess your expertise in the area in which you want to conduct research, you knowledge of the existing literature (and how your project will enhance it).

Moreover, they are used to assess and assign appropriate supervision teams.If you are interested in the work of a particular potential supervisor – and especially if you have discussed your work with this person – be sure to mention this in your proposal.We encourage you strongly to identify a prospective supervisor and get in touch with them to discuss your proposal informally BEFORE making a formal application, to ensure it is of mutual interest and to gain input on the design, scope and feasibility of your project.Remember, however, that it may not be possible to guarantee that you are supervised by a specific academic.Crucially, it is also an opportunity for you to communicate your passion in the subject area and to make a persuasive argument about what your project can accomplish.

Although the proposal should include an outline, it should also be approached as a persuasive essay – that is, as an opportunity to establish the attention of readers and convince them of the importance of your project.Is the research proposal ‘set in stone’? No.Good PhD proposals evolve as the work progresses.It is normal for students to refine their original proposal in light of detailed literature reviews, further consideration of research approaches and comments received from the supervisors (and other academic staff).

It is useful to view your proposal as an initial outline rather than a summary of the ‘final product’.

Structuring a Research Proposal Please check carefully with each department to find out whether a specific template is provided or required.In general, however, the following elements are crucial in a good research proposal: Title This can change, but make sure to include important ‘key words’ that will relate your proposal to relevant potential supervisors, funding schemes and so on research proposals University of Queensland.In general, however, the following elements are crucial in a good research proposal: Title This can change, but make sure to include important ‘key words’ that will relate your proposal to relevant potential supervisors, funding schemes and so on.

Make sure that your title goes beyond simply describing the subject matter – it should give an indication of your approach or key questions.Overview of the research In this section you should provide a short overview of your research and where it fits within the existing academic discourses, debates or literature.Be as specific as possible in identifying influences or debates you wish to engage with, but try not to get lead astray into a long exegesis of specific sources.

Rather, the point is to sketch out the context into which your work will fit.You should also use this section to make links between your research and the existing strengths of the department to which you are applying.Visit appropriate websites to find out about existing research taking place in the department and how your project can complement this.If applying to multiple departments, be sure to tailor a unique proposal to each department – readers can tell if a proposal has been produced for ‘mass consumption’! Be sure to establish a solid and convincing framework for your research in this section.This should include: research questions (usually, 1-3 should suffice) and the reason for asking them the major approach(es) you will take (conceptual, theoretical, empirical and normative, as appropriate) and rationale significance of the research (in academic and, if appropriate, other fields) Positioning of the research (approx.

900 words) This section should discuss the texts which you believe are most important to the project, demonstrate your understanding of the research issues, and identify existing gaps (both theoretical and practical) that the research is intended to address.This section is intended to ‘sign-post’ and contextualize your research questions, not to provide a detailed analysis of existing debates.900 words) This section should lay out, in clear terms, the way in which you will structure your research and the specific methods you will use.Research design should include (but is not limited to): The parameters of the research (ie the definition of the subject matter) A discussion of the overall approach (e.

is it solely theoretical, or does it involve primary/empirical research) and your rationale for adopting this approach Specific aims and objectives (e.‘complete 20 interviews with members of group x’) A brief discussion of the timeline for achieving this A well developed methodology section is crucial, particularly if you intend to conduct significant empirical research.

Be sure to include specific techniques, not just your general approach.

This should include: kinds of resources consulted; methods for collecting and analyzing data; specific techniques (ie statistical analysis; semi-structured interviewing; participant observation); and (brief) rationale for adopting these methods.References Your references should provide the reader with a good sense of your grasp on the literature and how you can contribute to it.Be sure to reference texts and resources that you think will play a large role in your analysis.Remember that this is not simply a bibliography listing ‘everything written on the subject’.

How to write a research proposal university of birmingham

Rather, it should show critical reflection in the selection of appropriate texts.

Possible pitfalls Quite often, students who fit the minimum entrance criteria fail to be accepted as PhD candidates as a result of weaknesses in the research proposal.To avoid this, keep the following advice in mind: Make sure that your research idea, question or problem is very clearly stated, persuasive and addresses a demonstrable gap in the existing literature As part of the application for admission onto our MJur, MPhil and PhD programmes, you must prepare a research proposal outlining your proposed area of study  .To avoid this, keep the following advice in mind: Make sure that your research idea, question or problem is very clearly stated, persuasive and addresses a demonstrable gap in the existing literature.

Put time into formulating the questions- in the early stages of a project, they can be as important as the projected results.Make sure that you have researched the departments to which you are applying to ensure that there are staff interested in your subject area and available to supervise your project.As mentioned above it is strongly advised that you contact potential supervisors in advance, and provide them with a polished version of your proposal for comment.

Make sure that your proposal is well structured deportesandorra.com/research-proposal/need-to-get-a-custom-human-nutrition-research-proposal-chicago-turabian-college-senior-double-spaced-plagiarism-free.Make sure that your proposal is well structured.Poorly formed or rambling proposals indicate that the proposed project may suffer the same fate deportesandorra.com/research-proposal/need-to-get-a-custom-human-nutrition-research-proposal-chicago-turabian-college-senior-double-spaced-plagiarism-free.Poorly formed or rambling proposals indicate that the proposed project may suffer the same fate.Ensure that the scope of your project is reasonable, and remember that there are significant limits to the size and complexity of a project that can be completed and written up in three years.We will be assessing proposals not only for their intellectual ambition and significance, but also for the likelihood that the candidate can complete this project.Make sure that your passion for the subject matter shines through in the structure and arguments presented within your proposal.

Remember that we may not be experts in your field – it is up to you to make your project and subject matter engaging to your readers! The following books are widely available from bookshops and libraries and may help in preparing your research proposal (as well as in doing your research degree): Bell, J.(1999): Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First-time Researchers in Education & Social Science, (Oxford University Press, Oxford).(2001): How to Research, (Open University Press, Milton Keynes).

(2000): The Research Student's Guide to Success, (Open University, Milton Keynes).(1997): Supervising the PhD, (Open University Press, Milton Keynes).Last updated - 09/02/2017 This article is based on material originally published at the One Hundred Thousand Words blog, used with kind permission.